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Private Limited Companies need to be registered with Companies House. This is known as ‘incorporation’. You need the following:


  • A company name 一个公司名称
  • an address for the company 一个公司地址
  • at least one director 至少一名董事
  • at least one shareholder 至少一名股东
  • the agreement of all initial shareholders (‘subscribers’) to create the company - known as a ‘memorandum of association’ 初创股东协议(签署者)-也被称为“公司备忘录”
  • details of the company’s shares and the rights attached to them - known as a ‘statement of capital’公司股份和相应权益的细节-被称为“资本声明”
  • written rules about how the company is run are known as ‘articles of association’公司如何运营的书面规则,也被称为“公司章程)

Once the company is registered you’ll get a ‘Certificate of Incorporation’. This confirms the company legally exists and shows the company number and date of formation.一旦公司注册完成,您将获得“公司注册证书”。这证实了公司的合法存在,以及显示公司注册号以及注册日期。

Your company will also need to register for Corporation Tax within 3 months of starting to do business.


Company name公司名称

You must choose a name for your business if you’re setting up a private limited company (Ltd)


· Your name can’t be exactly the same as another registered company’s name – we will do a search on the Companies House register to see if a name’s been taken.您的公司名称不能与其他已注册的公司一模一样-我们会在公司注册署查询您的名称是否已经被注册。

· Your registered company can’t be similar to (‘too like’ or ‘same as’) another registered name.您注册的公司名不能与其他已经注册的名称类似(“太像”或“相同)。

· You may be able to get permission from an existing registered company to use a name that’s the same or similar to theirs if your company is part of the same group.您可能可以从已经注册的公司处获得许可而使用与该公司相近或相同的名称,假如你们公司与该公司同属一个集团。

· Your name also can’t: 您的公司名称也不可以:

o contain a ‘sensitive’ word or expression unless you get permission


o suggest a connection with government or local authorities


o be offensive


When registered, there are rules about how and where you must display your company name 注册完成后,将会有关于如何以及在哪里必须显示您公司名的规定。

Registering a company or partnership name or using a business name doesn’t mean it’s protected as a trade mark - you have to register trademarks separately.


You may still want to check the trademark register before registering your name to make sure you can register it as a trademark.


The names of most private limited companies in the UK must end in either ‘Limited’ or ‘Ltd’ or the Welsh equivalents ‘Cyfyngedig’ and ‘Cyf’ if you registered the company in Wales.

大部分英国的私有有限公司的名称需要以“Limited”或“Ltd” 或如果您在威尔士注册,则为威尔士语的“ Cyfyngedig”和“Cyf”。

You can trade using a different name to your registered name. This is known as a ‘business name’.在交易时您可以使用与注册名字不同的名字。这就是所谓的“贸易名称”

Business names mustn’t: 贸易名称不能包含以下:

· include ‘limited’ or ‘Ltd’ “Limited”或“Ltd”(有限)

· be the same as an existing trademark 跟现有的一个商标一模一样

· contain a ‘sensitive’ word or expression unless you get permission

· 含“敏感”字或词,除非您获得许可

Company address公司地址

Your registered office address is where official communications will be sent, eg letters from Companies House and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).


The address must be:地址必须是:

  • a physical address 一个实际地址
  • in the same country your company is registered in, eg a company registered in Scotland must have a registered address in Scotland
  • 在您公司注册的所在国家 如:在苏格兰注册的公司必须有苏格兰的注册地址。

You can use a PO Box but must include a physical address and postcode after the PO Box number.您可以使用邮政信箱,但是必须包括一个实际地址和邮政邮箱号码后面的邮政编码。

You can use your home address or the address of the person who will manage your Corporation Tax if these addresses meet the rules above.


Your company address will be publicly available on the register


Appoint directors and a company secretary任命董事和公司秘书

Your company must have at least one director. Directors are legally responsible for running the company and making sure company accounts and reports are done properly.


A director must be 16 or over and not be disqualified from being a director.


Another company can be a director, but at least one of your company’s directors must be a person.


Directors’ names and addresses are publicly available from Companies House.


You don’t need a company secretary for a private limited company. Some companies use them to take on some of the director’s responsibilities. 私有有限公司不需要公司秘书。有些公司任命公司秘书以承担董事的一些责任。

The company secretary can be a director but can’t be:


  • the company’s auditor公司的审计
  • an ‘undischarged bankrupt’ - unless they have permission from the court
  • “未解除破产”-除非他们获得法院的许可

Even if you have a company secretary, the directors are legally responsible for the company. 即使您是一名公司秘书,董事还是法律上对公司负责。

Shares and shareholders股份和股东

A company limited by shares must have at least one shareholder, which can be a director. There’s no maximum number of shareholders.一个股份有限公司必须有至少一名股东,可以是董事。股东数量无上限。

Shareholders are owners of the company and they have certain rights, eg directors may need shareholders to vote and agree changes to the company. 股东是该公司的所有者,他们持有一定权力,如董事可能需要股东投票并同意公司的变更。

When you register a company you need to make a ‘statement of capital’. This includes: 当您注册公司是需要“资本声明”,包括:

  • the number of shares of each type the company has and their total value - known as the company’s ‘share capital’
  • 公司每种类型股份的数量和总价值-被称为公司的“股本”
  • the names and addresses of all shareholders - known as ‘subscribers’ or ‘members’ 所有股东的姓名和地址-被称为“签署者”或“成员”

Example: A company that issues 500 shares at £1 each has a share capital of £500.


Your statement of capital also contains information about shares known as ‘prescribed particulars’. 您的资本声明还包括股份的信息,被称为“订明详情”。

Your prescribed particulars say what rights each type (known as ‘class’) of share gives the shareholder, and must include:您的订明详情说明每种类型股份股东所拥有的权利(被称为“类别”),必须包括:

  • what share of dividends they get 分红比例
  • whether they can exchange (‘redeem’) their shares for money

他们能否交换(赎回) 他们的股份为金钱

  • whether they can vote on certain company matters


  • how many votes they get
  • 他们的能得到多少票投票权

Memorandum and articles of association备忘录和公司章程

When you register your company you need: 当您注册公司时需要:

  • a ‘memorandum of association’ - a legal statement signed by all initial shareholders agreeing to form the company 一份“公司备忘录”-由所有初创股东签署的用以同意创建公司的法律文书。
  • ‘articles of association’ - written rules about running the company agreed by the shareholders, directors and the company secretary公司章程-由股东、董事和公司秘书一致同意的公司规章制度的文书。

The exact wording of the statement can’t be changed. Normally a standard memorandum of association is valid.声明的准确词句不能更改。通常标准的公司备忘录是有效的。

Most companies use standard articles (known as ‘model articles’). 大部分公司使用标准公司章程(被称为“范例章程”)

Register for Corporation Tax 公司税注册

After you’ve registered your company with Companies House, you’ll need to register it for Corporation Tax. However, this can also be done by your accountant.


It is necessary to register for tax within 3 months of starting to do business. ‘Doing business’ includes buying, selling, employing someone, advertising, renting a property orcertain other activities.


You may get a penalty if you register late.如您未在规定时间内完成注册,将会被处罚。

Annual reporting procedures年度报告程序

After the end of its financial year, your private limited company must prepare:


  • full (‘statutory’) annual accounts完整的(法定)年度账目
  • a Company Tax Return 公司纳税申报表

You need your accounts and tax return to meet deadlines for filing with Companies House and HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC).您的帐目和纳税申报表需在英国公司注册署和英国税务和海关总署(HMRC)最后期限前完成。

You can also use them to work out how much Corporation Tax to pay. 您可以使用他们来计算您需要支付多少公司税。

Your accounting period for Corporation Tax is the time covered by your Company Tax Return. It’s normally the same 12 months as the company financial year covered by your annual accounts. 您的公司税会计期是指您公司纳税申报的时间。通常跟您公司年度账目所涉及的财政年度一样的12个月。

You can file with Companies House and HMRC together or separately. This is often dealt with by your accountant. Note that there are penalties for filing late with Companies House and HMRC.您可以同时或分别向公司注册署和英国税务及海关总署申报。通常是由您的会计师来处理。请注意,如未按时向公司注册署和英国税务及海关总署申报将会被处罚。

公司注册费用 请联系pam@connectchina.co.uk